Green coloniality of power over Sámi in Finland?

Written by Johanna Zilliacus


In my opinion, there is no climate justice if there is no justice for indigenous people

Mari Valjakka, Sámi pastor at Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland, in an interview by Barents Observer[1]

Free White Windmill Under Gray Cloudy Sky Stock Photo

Photo: Expect Best /


Indigenous Sámi communities in Finland, Sweden and Norway, have all spoken up against green colonialism in their territories[2]. They claim that these governments’ climate action violates their rights to land, livelihoods and decision-making. Most of the opposition to green colonialism relates to wind farms built and planned in the Sámi territory (Sápmi). Further, mining projects for minerals needed for electric vehicle batteries are considered to be conducted in Sápmi. A (currently dormant) railway project crossing Finnish Sápmi[3] could also be categorised as a climate change project. They contribute to shifting our societies away from fossil fuel dependency. At the same time, these climate projects can be seen as a continuum of centuries of repressive politics of the Nordic countries on Sámi communities.[4] In this blog post, I’ll look into Finnish wind power development in Sápmi from a lens of coloniality of power and the process of bordering and continued social exclusion of Sámi peoples.


Case: wind power in Sápmi creating borders

The global climate change emergency requires quick action by nations worldwide to drastically reduce greenhouse gas emissions. One important measure is the shift towards producing renewable electricity[5]. This is also the motivator behind the several wind power projects planned and implemented across Finland, including in Sápmi, where wind conditions are good. One example of this is a project in Lapland by Smart Windpower Oy. The planned wind power farm will expand over 68 m2 in the area of Ylitornio.[6] Local communities, including Sámi communities, have vehemently opposed this project.

The main reason for the local opposition is the expected negative impact on reindeer herding, a traditional livelihood of the Sámi population. Studies have shown that reindeer avoid going near wind power parks, which affects their grazing behaviour and places more pressure on the smaller amounts of land available for grazing, impacting the longer-term sustainability of those lands[7]. Another reason for the opposition is the lack of care for seidas, the holy places of Sámi[8], many of them located on the fells and hills where wind farms tend to be built. Finally, an important reason lies in past negative experiences of energy projects linked to coloniality of power and social exclusion of Sámi. Hydropower plants were built in Sápmi in the 1960s, causing the forced relocation of hundreds of Sámi in Finland, negatively affecting reindeer-based livelihoods and tearing apart language and cultural networks. These projects were developed without proper engagement and consultation of the local population[9], which can be seen as a misuse of the colonial power of the Finnish government for the extraction of natural resources in Sápmi. This past act of repression is thus clearly still a cause for the divide between Sámi communities and the Finnish government, and the wind power projects continue with this bordering process.


Political implications of the wind farm projects

Janne Hirvasvuopio, a Sámi member of the Green Party, explains that he cannot support the wind power ambitions of the Green Party as long as they imply wind power farms in Sápmi. He claims that wind power projects in Sápmi are a continuation of colonial power relations. The Finnish government uses its colonial power to extract natural resources of the Sápmi lands once again and draws parallels between the wind power projects to the disastrous hydropower projects[10]. Interestingly, the Green Party has been one of the most vocal parties in relation to Sámi’s rights, but at the same time, green colonialism is drawing borders between (green) Sámi activists and the Green Party.

On the other hand, the concept of green colonialism could also be misused for political purposes to drive the agenda of the climate change-denialist “True” Finns Party. Member of Parliament Kaisa Juuso has used it as a facade to oppose wind power projects[11], however, without acknowledging the colonial power relations between the Finnish government and the Sámi population.


Whose knowledge counts?

Another aspect of coloniality of power and social exclusion of Sámi in the form of green colonialism is the Eurocentricity of knowledge and generally approved science relating to climate change action. In line with the assumed rationality[12] of the Western forces driving modernity, technology (such as wind power) is seen as a central solution to climate change. This view completely ignores the indigenous knowledge that could provide less resource-intensive and more sustainable solutions for tackling climate change[13].

This blog post is not a stance against wind power. We need to disconnect our societies from fossil fuels as soon as possible, and renewable energy is a meaningful way forward for this. However, we need to ensure that any climate projects are designed with an understanding of the underlying power relations between the Sámi and the Finnish government, respecting the Sámi community’s knowledge as well as the right to their lands and livelihoods. Further, indigenous knowledge should become a central input for all climate change action.


This blog illustrates how a colonial past still today affects power relations. Climate change projects developed without this understanding and consideration may lead to the further social exclusion of Sámi people and the development of a more robust cultural, social and economic border between the Finnish state and Finns, and Sámi communities



[1] Salonen, S-M. (2021, November 14). Sámi representatives in COP26 raise concerns over ‘green colonialism’. The Barents Observer. Available at:

[2] See for example: Salonen, S-M. (2021, November 14). Sámi representatives in COP26 raise concerns over ‘green colonialism’. The Barents Observer. Available at:

[3] Paltto, A-S. & Tammela, L. (2021, May 18). Saamelaisten huoli vaihtui huojennukseen, kun Jäämeren rata päätettiin poistaa maakuntakaavasta: Arvokas päätös, mutta yhä pelottaa. Yle/ Finnish Broadcasting Company. Available at:

[4] Keskinen, S. (2019). Intra-Nordic Differences, Colonial/Racial Histories, and National Narratives: Rewriting Finnish History. Scandinavian studies, 91(1-2), 163-181.

[5] See, e.g. International Panel of Climate Change (2018). Global Warming of 1.5°C. An IPCC Special Report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels. Available at:

[6] Laatikainen (2020). Ylitornion kunnanhallitus hyväksyi Honkavaara-Isovaaran tuulivoima-alueen kaavoitusaloitteen. Lapin Kansa. Available at:

[7] Seipiharju, S. (2020, July 29). Lisääntyvä tuulivoimaa luo painetta porotaloudelle Norjassa – tuoreen raportin mukaan porotalous ja tuulivoima eivät sovi samalle alueelle. Yle/ Finnish Broadcasting Company. Available at:; Ny Teknik (2016, August 24). Studie: Vindkraftverk stör renar. Available at:

[8] Verde (2021)

[9] Yle/Finnish Broadcasting Company (2010, December 10). Tutkimus: Vesivoiman rakentaminen vahingoitti saamelaisia. Available at:

[10] Leukumaavaara, J. (2019, August 29). Twitter-saamelainen Janne Hirvasvuopio haluaa puhua vihreästä kolonialismista. Vihreä Lanka. Available at:

[11] Juuso, K. (2020, February 26). Vihreä kolonialismi valtaa Suomen. Blog post at Kaisa Juuso – kansanedustaja. Available at:

[12] Quijano, A. (2007). COLONIALITY AND MODERNITY/RATIONALITY. Cultural studies (London, England), 21(2-3), 168-178.

[13] Pettenger, M. E. (2016). The social construction of climate change: Power, knowledge, norms, discourses. Routledge; Brugnach, M., Craps, M. & Dewulf, A. (2017). Including indigenous peoples in climate change mitigation: Addressing issues of scale, knowledge and power. Climatic change, 140(1), 19-32.

A colonial history of social exclusion of indigenous Sámi in Finland

Written by Johanna Zilliacus

Free Herd of Brown Reindeer on Snow Covered Field Stock Photo

Photo: Alexandr Unikovskiy /


In this blog post, I will explore the social exclusion of Sámi indigenous people in a Finnish context. This blog will serve as background to a discussion on green coloniality that will follow in a second blog post. I mainly aim to explore the sociocultural and economic borders built between Sámi and the Finnish government. I will discuss this topic from a perspective of coloniality of power, a theoretical framework initially developed by the Peruvian sociologist Aníbal Quijano, as well as borders and social exclusion. In my second blog post, I aim to tie these concepts together through the concrete case of wind power projects in Finland, exploring how green colonialism contributes to the process of bordering and social exclusion of Sámi peoples in Finland.


Coloniality of power

Coloniality of power as a framework aims to explain how the formal political colonisation system affects power relations in the contemporary world. Although formal colonialism has been abolished in most cases, a Eurocentric worldview still dominates. The colonial power structures have later been codified as, for example, race, ethnicity and nationality, and they maintain the Eurocentric power still today. The coloniality of power can be seen in perception of knowledge and science, among others. The Eurocentric view is considered the “rational” and “objective” one, compared with, for example, indigenous knowledge[1].

In Finland, Suvi Keskinen from the University of Helsinki has studied how coloniality of power exercised by the Finnish state (and before that, the Swedish kingdom, which Finland was part of until 1809) has affected Sámi peoples throughout history. Race theory was developed by Finns during the 19th and 20th centuries with the objective to “prove” the inferiority of the Sámi race, which included measuring skulls and photographing Sámi bodies. Since then, the existence of a biological race has been proven a misconception[2], but stereotypes relating to cultural, social and political race are still alive. Land ownership and land use rights have been gradually removed from the Sámi communities. For example, municipal and national governments replaced the self-organising Sámi villages (siidas). Assimilation programmes, notably the boarding schools created in the mid-20th century for promoting Finnish language and culture, are examples of the use of colonial power by the Finnish state[3], traumas which are still felt today within the Sámi communities[4].


Social, cultural and economic borders

The national borders that divide Sápmi into parts of the Nordic nation-states are not generally visible, but they play a significant role in the daily lives of Sámi. A person might have to cross a national border to visit a relative living in the same Sápmi region, speaking the same language. The creation and shifts in the national borders have negatively impacted Sámi cultures and livelihoods[5]. However, these are not the only borders that exist for Sámi communities. Borders can be seen as complex institutions that are multidimensional and overlapping[6]. Apart from administrative and geopolitical nation-state borders, sociocultural and economic borders have been built between the Nordic settler states and the indigenous Sámi groups. These borders appear and are often established to draw lines between the “self” and “others”[7].

As a result of the coloniality of power that has been exercised against the Sámi in Finland, borders have been established that divide Finland/Finns as the (settler) colonial power from the “others”, i.e. Sápmi/Sámi. Socially, Sámi peoples have been infantilised, leading to Finns of the mainstream culture seeing them as incapable of managing their matters, justifying the assimilation programmes that have historically taken place. Culturally, this is seen in the mocking of Sámi culture in Finnish media, such as TV shows, as well as through cultural appropriation of e.g. Sámi traditional clothing [8] . There are countless accounts of Finns speaking out to undermine the gravity of this ridicule and cultural appropriation[9]. Economically, limiting access to land and regulation of central Sámi livelihoods such as reindeer herding and fishing has negatively impacted income opportunities and sustaining livelihoods [10]. I have also personally witnessed the coloniality of power exercised by the Finnish state. I myself grew up in Southern Finland in the 90s surrounded by TV sketch-shows ‘punching down’ at Sámi, kids in my school yard wearing fake Sámi hats, and being taught virtually nothing of Sámi history and culture in school.


Social exclusion of Sámi

The bordering processes have led to the social exclusion of Sámi peoples. Social exclusion as a concept looks at the processes that drive power relations and inequality. Further, it examines the multidimensionality of deprivation and different forms of it. Although there are many definitions and applications of social exclusion, one of its aspects is examining inequalities or exclusion as a result of social relationships, taking into account the power and status of different groups of people. The unequal use of power creates hierarchies of power between social groups[12]  – in line with the concept of coloniality of power. Social exclusion aims to discover the process in which these power relationships cause inequalities between different groups. The process of social exclusion of the Sámi has been built during several decades of uneven power relationships between the Finnish state (or the Swedish crown , before the establishment of Finland as a nation state) and the Sámi communities[12]. The unequal use of power can be explained through the coloniality of power. The Finnish, Eurocentric view on knowledge, science and rationality was considered superior to the infantilised Sámi peoples.


See my second blog post that discusses how the social exclusion of Sámi communities is affected by green colonialism as part of Finnish climate politics.




[1] Quijano, A. (2007). COLONIALITY AND MODERNITY/RATIONALITY. Cultural studies (London, England), 21(2-3), 168-178.; Quijano, A. (2000). Coloniality of Power and Eurocentrism in Latin America. International sociology, 15(2), 215-232.

[2] Chou, V. (2017). How Science and Genetics are Reshaping the Race Debate of the 21st Century. Blog on website of Harvard University, The Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. Available at:

[3] Keskinen (2019)

[4] West, S. (2021). Eatnameamet: Our Silent Struggle. Documentary film

[5] Keskinen (2019)

[6] Haselsberger, B. (2014). Decoding borders. Appreciating border impacts on space and people. Planning theory & practice, 15(4), 505-526.

[7] Newman, D. (2003). On borders and power: A theoretical framework. Journal of borderlands studies, 18(1), 13-25.

[8] Ranta, K. & Kanninen, J. (2019). Vastatuuleen: Saamen kansan pakkosuomalaistamisesta. Kustantamo S&S; West (2021)

[9] See e.g. Näkkäläjärvi, P. (2016). Näkökulma: Närkästyneet saamelaiset otsikoissa. Yle/ Finnish Broadcasting Company. Available at:

[10] Ranta, K. & Kanninen, J. (2019). Vastatuuleen: Saamen kansan pakkosuomalaistamisesta. Kustantamo S&S; West (2021)

[11] Mathieson et al (2008). Social Exclusion: Meaning, measurement and experience and links to health inequalities. A review of literature. WHO Social Exclusion Knowledge Network Background Paper 1. Available at:

[12] Keskinen (2019)

Antiracism week – Finland without Racism

This week (21.-27.3.2022) the Finnish Red Cross’ annual anti-racism campaign week is taking place. The Antiracism week always takes place around UN International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination which is on March 21st. The main message of the week is said by the Finnish Red Cross to be SEE, SAY, SOLVE. Additionally, the Finnish Red Cross explains the premiss of the week as follows:

During the week, we encourage people to raise discussion on how to create an inclusive atmosphere to all people with the help of good decisions, positive images, stories, friendships and meetings. The campaign will comment on how a dream society is built through practical acts and decisions.


To recognize the week and its importance, we at Social Exclusion want to highlight a new application that would be beneficial to many and which is suitable for the theme of this week. The app in question is Finland without Racism, which is an antiracism app that aims to be a platform for learning about and reporting racism. The app was developed with the help of the head of the Social Exclusion master’s program Aminkeng Atabong Alemanji and the app developer Kayo Games (programming Sila Kayo Quality Assurance Alida Ines Ouandji). The app works with the principle of antiracism training or Antiracism Apptivism, meaning the goal is to disrupt the structural system of racism through knowledge and actions. The app was published in January 2022 for Androids and the IOS version is still in progress.


The app has four parts to it. Starting off with an image of a privilege walk, which was illustrated by Nam-Ke, to emphasize the different starting points people have depending on their origin, race, religion, nationality, and mother tongue. Followed by a learning section, which includes various educational videos about racism and antiracism. These educational videos are for instance, about the racism Roma and Sami people faces. The third part of the app is a short test, which includes eight questions regarding discrimination, racism, and antiracism to reflect upon. The last part of the app is the reporting of racist incidents, which includes a description and links to whom one can report these incidents to. Each part of the app highlights the antiracist purpose of the app, which is learning about structural racism, testing one’s knowledge, and reporting racist incidents and made understandable and accessible for all ages. In the future, the app is planned to be translated into Swedish and Finnish and to be used as a tool in antiracist training in educational spaces.


During this Antiracism week, a lot can be done and thought about, which should be implemented throughout the year. It can be taking part in some of the existing events of the campaign (found on the Finnish Red Cross website), downloading the new app and becoming familiar with it and its function or doing the work oneself and understanding what it means to be antiracist.

Rasisminvastainen viikko 2019 | RedNet

Why I’m No Longer Talking to White People About Race

Why I’m No Longer Talking to White People About Race

Why I’m No Longer Talking to White People About Race: The Sunday Times Bestseller by [Reni Eddo-Lodge]

Reni Eddo-Lodge


In Reni Eddo-Lodge first book she further explores her own experience and thoughts about race conversations with white people. The book is a continuation of a blog post of her’s posted in 2014 where she states her frustration talking to white people about race, the inequality of those conversations and how the emotions of white people are taken more seriously than the emotions and killings of Black people and people of color. In Eddo-Lodge’s book Why I’m Not Talking to White People About Race she features seven essays talking about the history of racism, how is it systematically implemented, what white privilege is, feminism and class to mention a few topics. Her bold way of writing calls out injustice many racialized individuals can relate to and situations white people can reflect upon and educate themselves about. Her book has won several awards, like the 2018 British book award and is also a SundayTimes Bestseller. Additionally, her book has earned both longlisted and shortlisted for various other awards.


Reni Eddo-Lodge is an award-winning journalist, author and podcaster. At a young age, she was introduced to feminist activism, which helped her build her political persona, which she still finds useful today. She is born and raised in London, where she still lives.

The Exclusion of War


On Thursday, February 24th, many woke up to disturbing news. To some it was completely unexpected, a few had anticipated it and others heard or saw the treats but only thought of them as empty words. Even if, the invasion of Crimea in 2014 was still recollected by many, a war eight years later was not anything many had foreseen. Veterans who still remember the Second World War was thrown back to the fear and worry the time gave them. Others could finally see a light at the end of the corona tunnel, only to find themselves and the world in a crisis.


Now two weeks later, a lot has happened. Pictures of collapsed buildings after airstrikes, people living in bunkers and seeing the mass on train stations piled together, trying to flee the country to safety has filled most of everyone’s social media feed. We’ve also seen a tremendous amount of support for Ukraine and its people. Many countries have accepted Ukrainian refugees with open arms and supplied them with anything they need and globally different companies and even whole countries have boycotted anything Russian. However, this crisis has also visualized some horrendous aspects and treatments of already excluded individuals and people.


Within the borders of Ukraine, and looking at the people trying to desperately escape, the discrepancy in the way people have been treated has been saddening. Ukraine accepted many international students or exchange students to study, for instance, medicine. However, now in the middle of a war, many of these students have not been aided when trying to evacuate like the rest of the Ukrainian citizens. These international students, mostly from African nations, have been removed from trains, not let onto trains and when women and children have been asked to board, Black women have been turned away at the door and not accepted onto the trains. In addition to the racism seen when people try to evacuate, there have also been cases of transphobia. Ukrainian trans women, who still have their previous gender on their passport have also been denied leaving the country in pursuit of sanctuary in a different country.


Meanwhile, the people within Ukraine has faced racism and discrimination, you can also see the exclusion of people as a result of war globally. For instance, in Finland, Russian citizens have faced an overwhelming amount of harassment and prejudice for the past weeks. Surely this is not a new phenomenon in Finland, where Russians have faced discrimination before, but it has increased and nationalistic Finns see the war as a reason to be mad at Russian citizens, even if they have nothing to do with starting a war. Additionally, the way this war and the Ukrainian refugees has been treated globally, compared to other conflicts and refugees also shows hypocrisy.  Wars that have been going on for years and decades still go by unnoticed in Western media and no sanctions or boycotts are put into place to help these nations in crisis. What these crises have in common is their geographical positioning in the Global South and that it involves non-white, non-western and non-European people. How the world was so quick to condemn Russia was impressive but compared to the crisis in the Middle East and how the West chooses to turn a blind eye is devastating but not surprising. When it comes to Ukrainian refugees, which neighbouring countries should definitely find shelter for,  the way they have been treated and discussed in the media has been completely different compared to other non-white, non-blue eyed and non-European refugees. The Ukrainian refugees are welcomed and taken care of, whereas other refugees are and have been treated like animals and forgotten. All in all, making it clear that some people matter more than others.


Discussing wars and conflicts there are always many perspectives and aspects to consider, in addition to it being difficult and even exhausting to talk about it all. It is not to minimize the struggle and hardship of people trying to flee their homeland and find safety, it is only to show how people are treated and excluded in different ways when it comes to crises. In a class held a week and a half after Russia invaded Ukraine numerous of the students shared different opinions and thoughts about the situation, many of which were briefly mentioned above. These are assumingly also aspects of wars which certainly plenty of individuals have also been reflecting on. War or conflicts and their consequences shape a multitude of people’s lives, not only within the borders of the warzone but people around the globe.

International Women’s Day


On March 8th we celebrate International Women’s Day. The day is dedicated to celebrating women’s achievements and seeking gender equality.


A Brief History Of International Women's Day - 29Secrets

International Women’s Day was marked for the first time in 1911 and the date March 8th was fixed in 1913. The first time the United Nations celebrated the day was in 1975. March 8th also has an annual theme and the UN and the UN Women have stated that the theme for the 2022 International Women’s Day is “Gender equality today for a sustainable tomorrow”.  The purpose of having this theme is to highlight the need for gender equality in the pursuit of having a sustainable future and to uplift women who are doing a tremendous job and working for climate change adaptation, mitigation and legislation to ensure a more sustainable future for everyone. Read more about sustainability and gender equality on UN’s and UN Women’s websites. Additionally, International Women’s Day declared that their 2022 campaign is #BreakTheBias. International Women’s Day on their website further explain their campaign as follows:

“Imagine a gender equal world.

A world free of bias, stereotypes, and discrimination.

A world that is diverse, equitable, and inclusive.

A world where difference is valued and celebrated.

Together we can forge women’s equality.

Collectively we can all #BreakTheBias.

Individually, we’re all responsible for our own thoughts and actions – all day, every day.

We can break the bias in our communities.

We can break the bias in our workplaces.

We can break the bias in our schools, colleges and universities.

Together, we can all break the bias – on International Women’s Day (IWD) and beyond.”


Biases, whether conscious or unconscious, are not only hurtful and dangerous but directly contributes to gender inequality and the belief of a more “weaker” or “incompetent” body and mind.  Biases are already placed on you as a woman and your sexuality, religion, race, nationality, language, ideology, disability and/or occupation can in many cases add to the already existing prejudice and discrimination directed to your gender. To #BreakTheBias globally would mean mobility and freedom for women all over. It would mean the possibility for women to act and speak as they desire. To hear more about the campaign you can check out Anisa Nandaula’s spoken word poet about #BreakTheBias.




To find time for celebration might be hard or even impossible when following the current global conflicts and wars going around and seeing all women and so many others suffering and becoming refugees. However, today can be a day to donate to a charity aiding women, reflecting on female role models in your life or that you look up to or to read and educate yourself more on women’s issues and how conflicts and global warming places women in a vulnerable state. Regardless today is March 8th and this day is for us Women. I want to wish everyone who identifies as a Woman a really wonderful day wherever you might be. I wish that you have support, care and love in your surroundings and that despite anything you will succeed with all your dreams and passions. And for everyone who has a Woman in their life, as a mother, a daughter, a sister, a partner, a wife, a friend or even a neighbour, to be kind, encouraging, and respectful to Women.

24,904 International Womens Day Illustration Stock Photos, Pictures &  Royalty-Free Images - iStock

SoEx Students’ Experiences


In this blog post, you can read five Social exclusion students’ experiences and thoughts about the program. They were all asked the same questions and these are their answers.


Name: Niki Panera

Where are you from? Greece

Why did you apply for the Social Exclusion Master’s program? To enhance my knowledge on issues of human rights, racism & and to improve my CV

Best way to unwind or relax after your studies? Gym, music & short trips

What is something you wished you knew a year ago? Nothing. I like learning through my experiences.




Name: Donald Nih Tarke

Where are you from? Cameroon

Why did you apply for the Social Exclusion Master’s program? I have been a victim of “deep exclusion” and intend to become a voice for others with similar experiences and the reality of marginalization.

Best way to unwind or relax after your studies? I don’t have one

What is something you wished you knew a year ago? Being more tech-savvy!




Name: Sandis Sitton

Where are you from? California

Why did you apply for the Social Exclusion Master’s program? How much space do I have? Partly, because I needed a purpose in life during the coronavirus pandemic. We were 1 year into the pandemic, more or less, and I was enduring it via all of the unhealthy coping mechanisms one does, when my friend told me he was applying to a program in Finland, on the other side of the Earth. I had never heard of social exclusion. It’s not a concept Americans employ, hardly ever, but it had a focus on intersectionality, it seemed, and that was something that I felt I hadn’t gotten to explore while studying philosophy for my bachelor’s program.

At the same time, the country was exploding around us, with new protests crowding the streets of nearly every major city in the US for weeks, months, decrying social injustice, systemic racism, and the police murder of black people across the nation ignored. This program focuses on the very dynamics that are being battled over in my country, and I can honestly say that at least some part of me selfishly wanted to be more informed. Systemic oppression is a hard thing to recognize from the inside of a system, especially when you have the privilege of being insulated from it, not having to see it every day. I certainly felt the need to strip away some of the guilt that comes with willful ignorance, which is what it feels like it is when you can recognize that, but still feel uncertain as to how to talk about it.

So yeah, it captures perspectives I felt were important to what I’d already studied and talked about issues that are relevant to the social issues where I’m from. I’m very interested in the meta side of things, it’s what drew me to philosophy in the first place, but now the concept of decolonizing thought has the same allure and I think getting experience with that discourse here can help a person anywhere.

… I should have just said that, to begin with.

Best way to unwind or relax after your studies? Scream into a pillow. Then get outside and go on a walk, anywhere, just walk and listen to the wind.

What is something you wished you knew a year ago? To buy my furniture from EKOTORI. GET THE WORD OUT NOW, YOU DON’T NEED TO PAY THE IKEA BLOOD PRICE IF YOU KNOW WHERE THE SECOND-HAND STORES ARE!




Name: Nia Sullivan

Where are you from? Washington, USA

Why did you apply for the Social Exclusion Master’s program? The social exclusion program was captivating for various reasons. Overall, I applied to attain the fundamental theoretical and relevant skills to become an effective human rights practitioner. Social exclusion theories identify the structural origins and historical implications that construct and eternalize exclusion. Understanding how structures interact with experience is essential in engaging critically with social systems. Furthermore, the interdisciplinary approach used in the social exclusion program compelled me to apply, as I could study in other subjects and select a concentration in gender studies.

Best way to unwind or relax after your studies? Meditation, dancing, and long runs are my stress reliefs. Finland has turned me into a snow and ice runner!

What is something you wished you knew a year ago? I enjoy participating in courses from other Universities. Finding more information about this when I started the program would have been valuable.




Name: Godfred Gyimah

Where are you from? Ghana

Why did you apply for the Social Exclusion Master’s program? It is relevant for my intent and future career prospects. It relates to my previous study in Social services.

Best way to unwind or relax after your studies? To have enough sleep and manage my time judiciously

What is something you wished you knew a year ago? The programme has helped me to think differently. it helps you to understand the broader conception of the nature of the constructed world we live in today. Its stratifications, inequalities, and the structural, political, institutional and the socio-cultural exclusion of people. Again, it helps you to deconstruct the constructed and to work towards antiracism relief people from oppression.